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In keeping with the idea that MT-2 may affect oxytocin signaling and thus behavior in ASD, research also reveals that the MC-4R receptor may play a role in impulse control. Past studies in rats have shown that administration of MT-2 reduces alcohol intake and increases water intake even in rats that prefer alcohol[8]. More recently, research has revealed that melanotan-2 works synergistically (boosting efficacy more than seven-fold) with naltrexone to blunt binge-like ethanol intake in mice[9].




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Research using mice shows that stimulation with melanotan 2 increases arousal via interaction with neuronal fibers of the paraventricular nucleus. In fact, stimulation of this pathway can lead to immediate transition to wakefulness from both NREM and REM sleep[13]. Further research in this area may uncover how to improve sleep and enhance concentration via the melanocortin system, making peptides like melanotan 2 potential nootropics.


Melanotan 1 is very similar to naturally occurring alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone alpha-MSH (Melanotan 2). Alpha-MSH is primarily known for its influence on melanocytes, the cells in skin and hair responsible for pigmentation. This function is mediated via strong binding to melanocortin receptor 1. Alpha-MSH is a non-selective full agonist of melanocortin receptors 1, 3, 4, and 5. Melanotan 1 differs from alpha-MSH (Melanotan 2) by a single amino acid and was actually first developed as a sunless tanning agent. Research into melanocortin receptors and their effects was relatively limited at the time and scientists quickly discovered that while melanotan 1 did indeed cause pigmentation, it also increases sexual arousal, boosted appetite, and altered baseline metabolism. Subsequent study of melanotan 1 and other melanocortin-binding proteins helped scientists to better understand the melanocortin signaling system.


Melanotan 1 is a synthetic analogue of alpha-melanotocyte stimulating hormone. It is used clinically, in Europe, to prevent sun-related skin damage (i.e. phototoxicity) from occurring in people suffering from erythropoietic protoporphyria. Though initially developed as a sunless tanning agent, melanotan 1 has been found to have a number of physiologic effects on blood pressure, feeding behavior, central nervous system function, and more. The peptide is in phase 3 clinical trials for the treatment of polymorphous light eruption and is in phase 2 clinical trials for the treatment of actinic keratosis (a specific type of skin damage caused by the sun) and its more serious counterpart, squamous cell carcinoma.


Melanotan 1 differs from alpha-MSH by a single amino acid and was actually first developed as a sunless tanning agent. Research into melanocortin receptors and their effects was relatively limited at the time and scientists quickly discovered that while melanotan 1 did indeed cause pigmentation, it also increases sexual arousal, boosted appetite, and altered baseline metabolism. Subsequent study of melanotan 1 and other melanocortin-binding proteins helped scientists to better understand the melanocortin signaling system.


MT-1 has been studied in phase 1 clinical trials for its effect on tanning in humans exposed to ultraviolet radiation. The research showed that subjects administered MT-1 were 75% more likely to tan and 47% less likely to experience sunburn. Compared to controls, subjects given melanotan 1 required 50% less exposure to ultraviolet light to achieve equivalent tanning. They also retained their tan for three weeks longer than those exposed only to UV light[1]. There is some thought among scientists that melanotan 1 could be used to boost tanning in high UV settings to protect against sunburn and the long-term effects of ultraviolet skin damage. This could be particularly useful in individuals with poor-tanning skin types (referred to as type I and type II by the Fitzpatrick scale).


Research in individuals with variant MC1 receptors shows that they are less likely to tan than the average individual. As it turns out, administration of melanotan 1 in this setting increases melanin density and tanning substantially, helping to protect people who do not tan well and are most in need of photoprotection[2]. These are individuals who get limited benefit from sunscreen and, in order to prevent skin cancer, must limit their sun exposure a great deal. This research could open pathways to better UV protection and reduce rates of skin cancer substantially.


There is also interest in using melanotan 1 to treat vitiligo. A small phase 1 trial showed that using melanotan 1 in conjunction with UVB light therapy stimulated both melanin production and the proliferation of the melanocytes that produce melanin. Nearly half of treated patients showed improved pigmentation of vitiligo lesions and a faster rate of repigmentation[3]. Research shows that combining melanotan 1 treatment with existing treatment modalities of vitiligo produces synergistic effects and improved aesthetic outcomes in shorter periods of time[4]. If successful in vitiligo treatment, there may be applications for melanotan 1 treatment in the setting of hypopigmented scars, etc.


Research in hypertensive (high blood pressure) mice has revealed that melanotan 1 can protect against high blood pressure without affecting animals that have normal blood pressure[5]. This is important because current blood pressure medications can cause hypotension, which can lead to loss of consciousness, stroke, heart attack, and more. This side effect of blood pressure medications is more common in the elderly, thanks in part to their labile physiology. The ability to regulate high blood pressure without causing significant lows makes melanotan 1 the perfect candidate for exploring further drug development.


The benefit of melanotan 1 action at the MC4 receptor has been explored in other studies as well. Research, also in mice, shows that MC4 receptor stimulation can boost neurogenesis and lead to cognitive recovery in AD. It is one of the few studies to show improvement in the condition rather than simply slowing decline[7]. Once daily administration of MT-1 reduces levels of all AD-related biomarkers, indicating that the peptide actually works through multiple pathophysiological pathways[8].


The MC4 receptor is the only melanocortin receptor known to be expressed on astrocytes, the cells that protect neurons and provide them with nutrition. Research in rats indicates that melanotan 1 improves astrocyte functioning by increasing levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)[9]. BDNF is critical to protecting synapse stability and neurogenesis in general.


Research in rats undergoing heart attack has shown that melanotan 1 and other melanocortins can help to reduce injury and improve circulatory parameters. Administration of MT-1 during CPR and in conjunction with epinephrine helps to restore baseline arterial pressure and heart rate, reverses metabolic acidosis, reduces inflammatory markers, and improves the expression of genes associated with cardiac function. Overall, the therapy improved survival rate by 81%, a substantial increase that may make melanotan 1 or a similar melanocortin a mainstay of emergency advanced cardiac life support[11].


Melanotan 1 works on several melanocortin receptors, including the MC5 receptor. Stimulation of MC5R promotes the oxidation of fatty acids by muscle and shifts fat cells from fat storage to fat burning[14], [15]. These findings in mice also reveal that the fat burning caused by melanocortin stimulation is complex and involves several receptors and physiologic pathways. That said, melanotan 1 is useful to scientists wishing to explore how fatty acid metabolism can be altered and offers the tantalizing ability to boost baseline physiology without the need for exercise, which could be of tremendous benefit in individuals who are unable to exercise due to morbid obesity, disability, or injury.


Melanotan II acts as a non-selective agonist of the melanocortin receptors MC1, MC3, MC4, and MC5. In universe studies it is shown to the extent that melanotan II produces melanogenesis, this is thought to be activation of the MC1 receptor, whereas its research data in rats documented sexual induced effects are thought to be related to its ability to activate the MC4 receptor (through the MC3 is thought to possible also be involved).


Some social media influencers have recently been promoting tanning products containing melanotan II, an illegal artificial hormone that can accelerate tanning. These products come in the form of injections and nasal sprays.


While Prof. Cass and his colleagues expected to find around 10 ingredients in a licensed medication, they were shocked to discover that some of the products analyzed contained over 100 unidentified ingredients, alongside melanotan II.


We have stock of nasal spray melanotan 2, MT2 starter kits, tanning injections uk, tanning nasal sprays and single vials of Melanotan 2, should there be a quantity of a product that you may need you can reach us using the contact us section of the website.


Melanotan 2 (MT-2) is a synthetic peptide and analogue of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. MT-2 has a shorter amino acid sequence than melanotan 1 (afamelanotide), and is believed to have a stronger effect on melanocortin receptors 3 and 4, involved in penile erection and appetite suppression.


Tanning injections come in two forms: melanotan I and melanotan II. Both types of injections work by replicating alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in your body. This hormone binds to melanocortin receptors and stimulates the production of the pigment melanin in your skin cells. The more melanin your skin cells produce, the darker your skin appears.


Melanotan II binds with a wider range of receptors than melanotan I and has a shorter life in your body. It can also cross your blood-brain barrier, which can cause side effects like appetite loss, sexual dysfunction, and fatigue. Melanotan II is not currently used to treat any medical conditions. 041b061a72


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